Research database



The Research Database contains open-access information on European foreign policies towards the Eastern and Southern neighbourhoods, and other external/internal challenges to the EU. The database provides references to the main organizations and respective policies, research reports, and datasets related to these issues. To facilitate access to the compiled documents, resources are organised according to thematic sections and by type (i.e. institutional, research, and other).

Click on one of the section below to access the list of resources.





Berdal M., Birch S., Campbell I., Caplan R., Roy-Chaudhury R., Cowper-Coles S., Dennys C., Healy Obe S., Lewis P., Roberts A., Rodweel T., Wallace H. (2015), Rethinking State Fragility, British Academy

Börzel, T.A. (2010), Governance with/out Government. False Promises or Flawed Premises?, SFB-Governance Working Paper Series n. 23, Research Center (SFB) 700

Börzel, T.A. (2012), How Much Statehood Does it Take – and What For?SFB-Governance Working Paper Series n. 29, DFG Sonderforschungsbereich 700

Börzel, T.A. and Risse, T. (2010), Governance without a state: Can it work?Regulation & Governance, 4(2), pg. 113-134

Börzel, T.A. and Risse, T. (2015), Dysfunctional Institutions, Social Trust, and Governance in Areas of Limited StatehoodSFB-Governance Working Paper Series n. 67, Collaborative Research Center (SFB) 700

Börzel, T.A. and van Hüllen, V. (2011), Good Governance and Bad Neighbors? The Limits of the Transformative Power of EuropeKFG Working Paper Series n. 35, Kolleg-Forschergruppe (KFG) “The Transformative Power of Europe” 

Börzel, T.A. and van Hüllen, V. (2014), External State-Building and Why Norms Matter. The European Union’s Fight against Corruption in the Southern Caucasus’, SFB-Governance Working Paper Series n. 59, Collaborative Research Center (SFB) 700

de Weijer, F. (2013), Resilience: A Trojan Horse for a New Way of Thinking?, European Centre for Development Policy Management

Grävingholt J., Ziaja S., Kreibaum M. (2012), State Fragility: Towards a Multi-dimensional Empirical Typology, German Development Institute

Heucher, A., Linke-Behrens, L. and Schettler, L. (2017), Measuring Statehood on a Sub-National Level: A Dialogue among MethodsSFB-Governance Working Paper Series, Collaborative Research Center (SFB) 700

Joseph, J. (2017), The Resilience Turn in German Development Strategy and Humanitarian Intervention, Duisburg-Essen university

Linke-Behrens, L. and van Hoof-Maurer, L. (2016), External Authority: Compensation for Limited Statehood in the Provision of Collective Goods?SFB-Governance Working Paper Series n. 70, Collaborative Research Center (SFB) 700

Margolis J. Eli (2012), Estimating State Instability, Studies in Intelligence, vol. 56 (1)

Mosel, I. and Levine, S. (2014), Supporting Resilience in Difficult Places: A Critical Look at Applying the ‘Resilience’ Concept in Countries Where Crises are the Norm, Overseas Development Institute

Risse, T. (2012), Governance Configurations in Areas of Limited Statehood. Actors, Modes, Institutions, and ResourcesSFB-Governance Working Paper Series n. 32, Research Center (SFB) 700

Schmelzle, C. (2011), Evaluating Governance. Effectiveness and Legitimacy in Areas of Limited Statehood,  SFB-Governance Working Paper Series n. 26, Research Center (SFB) 700

Schneckener, U. (2009), Spoilers or Governance Actors? Engaging Armed Non-State Groups in Areas of Limited StatehoodSFB-Governance Working Paper Series n. 21, Research Center (SFB) 700

Stollenwerk, E. (2018), Measuring Governance and Limited Statehood, in: Risse, T., Börzel, T.A, Draude, A.(eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Governance and Limited Statehood, pg. 106-127, Oxford University Press.


Stollenwerk, E. and Opper, J. (2017), The Governance and Limited Statehood Dataset, version March 2017, Research Center (SFB) 700

The Data on Armed Conflict and Security Project compiles different data sets: Event Data on Armed Conflict and Security (EDACS), Consolidated List of Wars (CoLow), and Private Security Database (PSD).

Grono N. (2010), Fragile States and Conflict, Speech to Institut Royal Supérieur de Défense




EU institutions, agencies, and instruments

European Commission Directorate General for International Cooperation and Development (DG DEVCO)

European Commission’s Directorate General for Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection (ECHO) 

EU Delegations and Offices around the world

A Global Strategy for the European Union’s Foreign and Security Policy details the renewed EU Global Strategy, adopted in July 2016. The EU Global Strategy sets out the EU's core interests and principles for engaging in the world.

EEAS (2015), The European Union in a Changing Global Environment: A More Connected, Contested and Complex World

A Strategic Approach to Resilience in the EU's External Action (2017), on how a strategic approach to resilience can increase the impact of EU external action and sustain progress toward EU development, humanitarian, and foreign and security policy objectives.

Database of Treaties and Agreements


Balfour R. et al. (2016), Europe’s Troublemakers: The populist challenge to foreign policy, European Policy Centre

Bicchi. F and Brember. B (2016), European diplomatic practices: contemporary challenges and innovative approaches European Security, 2016, 25 (4). 391-406. ISSN 0966-2839

Colombo S., Dessi A., and Ntousas V. (eds.) (2017), The EU, Resilience and the MENA Region, Foundation for European Progressive Studies and Istituto Affari Internazionali

Hauck, V., Knoll, A. and Cangas, A. H. (2015), EU Trust Funds – Shaping more comprehensive external action?, European Centre for Development Policy Management

Laffan.B and De Feo. A (2017) Scrutiny of EU policies : contributions to the workshop organised by the RSCAS February, 27 2017

Lehne S. (2017), Is There Hope for EU Foreign Policy?, Carnegie Europe

Lehne S. (2015), The EU Global Strategy, a Triumph of Hope Over Experience, Strategic Europe, Carnegie Europe

Missiroli A. (2017), A handbook – The EU and the world: players and policies post-Lisbon, European Union Institute for Security Studies

Rotmann P. and Mohan G. (2017), Managing Conflict, Building Peace: Opportunities for Developing the EU-India Strategic Partnership, Global Public Policy Institute and Carnegie India

Roy. O (2016), Secularism anno 2016 : the place of religion in Europe today : the need for more open societies, Middle East Directions (MED); Policy Briefs; 2016/05

Ülgen S. (2017), A Resilience Approach to a Failed Accession State: The Case of Turkey, Istituto Affari Internazionali


OECD’s Anti-corruption network for Eastern Europe and Central Asia supports the countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia in their efforts to prevent and fight corruption.

EU Sanctions Map, launched by the Estonian Presidency of the Council of the EU in September 2017




EU institutions, agencies, and instruments

An overview of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP). Further information available on the European Commission’s European Neighbourhood Policy and Enlargement Negotiations (DG NEAR) website. For the current status of the ENP: Report on the Implementation of the European Neighbourhood Policy Review (2017)

ENP Progress reports assess the status of the ENP Action Plans (or the Association Agendas for Eastern partner countries).

European Neighbourhood Instrument

Neighbourhood, Development and International Cooperation Instrument (NDICI), a factsheet on an EU’s external action funding mechanism for the EU’s neighbourhood and Africa

The EU’s Western Balkans strategy (February 2018) is part of the enlargement negotiations. “A credible enlargement perspective for and enhanced EU engagement with the Western Balkans” and the Annex with Action Plan provide an overview of the union’s engagement in the region.

On the implementation of the EU’s enlargement strategy: the Annual Enlargement Package (2018) and related reports on the state of play in candidate countries for 2018: Albania, Bosnia and HerzegovinaKosovoMontenegro, Serbia, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey.

EU’s External Investment Plan, adopted in 2017 to help boost investment in partner countries in Africa and the European Neighbourhood | factsheet

European Endowment for Democracy (EED) is a grant-giving organisation that supports local actors of democratic change in the European Neighbourhood and beyond.


Blockmans S. (2017), The Obsolescence of the European Neighbourhood Policy, Centre for European Policy Studies

Bornstein R. (2018), Eastern Mediterranean regional dynamics: conflicts and opportunities for conflict resolution support, EuroMesco Policy Brief n. 82

Gaub F. and Popescu N. (2015), The EU neighbours 1995-2015: shades of grey, Chaillot Paper 136, European Institute for Security Studies

Ioannides I. (2018), Peace and Security in 2018: An Evaluation of EU peacebuilding in the Western Balkans, European Parliament Research Service

Lehne S. (2015), Toward a European Neighborhood Realpolitik?, Strategic Europe, Carnegie Europe


EU Neighbourhood Info Centre and EU Neighbours Library, an online database bringing together key documents, publications and reports related to the EU’s relations with its neighbourhood partners, both to the South and the East.



EU institutions, agencies, and instruments

EU Relations with Eastern Europe

EU Eastern Partnership, a general overview with the main policies and official documents

ENP action plans (or Association Agendas for Eastern partner countries)

Basic figures on the European Neighbourhood Policy-East countries, Eurostat, 2018 edition

Armenia: EU’s relations with Armeniafactsheet (2018)

Azerbaijan: EU’s relations with Azerbaijanfactsheet (2018)

 Belarus: EU’s relations with Belarusfactsheet (2018)

 Georgia: EU’s relations with Georgiafactsheet (2018)

 Moldova: EU’s relations with MoldovafactsheetAssociation Implementation Report on Moldova (2018)

Ukraine: EU-Ukraine relations overview, factsheet (2018), and Special Report on EU assistance to Ukraine (2016)


(2018) Ukraine. The Principles of Public Administration, SIGMA (OECD)

Ash T. (2017)., The Struggle for Ukraine, Chatham House

Bugriy M. and Maksak H. (2016), The Initial Situation Before Conducting Security Sector Reform in Ukraine, in “Security Sector Reform”, Centre for European and North Atlantic Affairs (CENAA)

Charap S., Shapiro J. and Demus A. (2018), Rethinking the Regional Order for Post-Soviet Europe and Eurasia, RAND Corporation

de Waal T. (2016), Prisoners of the Caucasus: Resolving the Karabakh Security Dilemma, Carnegie Europe

Emerson M. and Kovziridze T. (2016), Georgia and Europe: A short guide, Centre for European Policy Studies

Emerson M. and Movchan V. (eds.)( 2016), Deepening EU-Ukrainian Relations: What, why, and how, Centre for European Policy Studies

Facon I. (2017), Reforming Ukrainian Defense: No Shortage of Challenges, Russie.NEI.Visions, n. 101, Institut Français des Relations Internationales

Falkowski M. (2016), Georgian Drift: the Crisis of Georgia’s Way Westwards, Centre for Eastern Studies

Haukkala H. (2016), A Perfect Storm; Or What Went Wrong and What Went Right for the EU in Ukraine, Europe-Asia Studies, vol. 68 (4), pp. 653-664

Horbulin V.(ed.) (2017), The World Hybrid War: Ukrainian Forefront, National Institute for Strategic Studies

Jakša U. (2017), EU Policy Options towards Post-Soviet De Facto States, Policy Paper n. 6 (159), Polish Institute for International Affairs

Kostanyan H. and Giragosian R. (2017), EU-Armenian Relations: Charting a fresh course, Centre for European Policy Studies

Liik K. (2018), Winning the Normative War with Russia An EU-Russia Power Audit, European Council On Foreign Relations

Litra L., Medynskyi I., Zarembo K. (2017), Assessing the EU’s conflict prevention and peacebuilding interventions in Ukraine, Institute of World Policy

Oliker O. (2016), Security Sector Reform in Ukraine, Rand Corporation

Perchoc P. (2017), Georgia: European Engagement in an Unstable Environment, Briefing, European Parliamentary Research Service

Popescu N. and Secrieru S. (eds.) (2018), Third Powers in Europe’s East, European Union Institute for Security Studies

Pring C. (2016) People and Corruption: Europe and Central Asia 2016, Transparency International

Roy O. (2017), Religious freedom and diversity in a comparative European perspective, Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern studies, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 86-89.

Roy O. and Elbasani A. (2017), Governing Islam and religious pluralism in new democracies, Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern studies, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 1-3.

Sasse G. (2017), The Donbas – Two parts, or still one? The experience of war through the eyes of the regional population, Centre for Eastern European and International Studies (ZOiS)

Stronski P. (2016), Armenia at Twenty-Five: a Rough Ride, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

Tulmets E. (2011), Institution-Building Instruments in the Eastern Partnership: Still Drawing on Enlargement?, Eastern Partnership Review, n. 6

Wilk A. (2017), The Best Army Ukraine Has Ever Had, Centre for Eastern Studies (OSW)

Wolczuk K. and Darius Žeruolis D. (2018), Rebuilding Ukraine. An Assessment of EU Assistance, Chatham House

Yakymenko, Yu. et al. (2018), Ukraine 2017–2018: New Realities, Old Problems, Razumkov Centre

Youngs R. (2017), Is 'Hybrid Geopolitics' the Next EU Foreign Policy Doctrine?, LSE Europp blog

Zygierewicz A. (ed.) (2018), Association agreements between the EU and Moldova, Georgia and Ukraine: European Implementation Assessment, European Parliamentary Research Service


2016 Civil Society Organization (CSO) Sustainability Index for Central and Eastern Europe and Eurasia, USAID

Carnegie Moscow Center, research focused on Russia and the countries of the former Soviet Union

Caucasus Barometer (2017 ed.), an annual household survey about social economic issues and political attitudes in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia conducted by the Caucasus Research Resource Center

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, news outlet focusing on East Europe and South Caucasus

Reforming Ukraine, a project of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace focused on monitoring and assessing the progress or reforms in Ukraine

Ukraine Democratic Security Sector Governance, a website on Ukraine’s current security sector governance issues, created by the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces and the Razumkov Centre



EU institutions, agencies, and instruments

EU’s policy toward the Southern Neighborhood (DG NEAR)

Regional cooperation includes activities financed through the EU Regional Trust Fund in Response to the Syrian Crisis and the Emergency Trust Fund for stability and addressing root causes of irregular migration and displaced persons in Africa

Algeria: EU’s relations with Algeria – factograph

Egypt: EU’s relations with EgyptfactographEU-Egypt Partnership Priorities 2017-2020

Israel: EU’s relations with Israelfactograph

Jordan: EU’s relations with Jordanfactograph

 Lebanon: EU’s relations with Lebanon

Libya: EU’s relations with Libyafactograph | Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in the Fields of Development, the Fight against Human Trafficking and Fuel Smuggling and on Reinforcing the Security of Borders between the State of Libya and the Italian Republic

 Morocco: EU’s relations with Moroccofactograph

Palestine: EU’s relations with Palestine - factograph

 Syria: EU’s relations with Syria  –  Factsheet: Supporting the future of Syria and the region - EU support to Syrians inside Syria – EU Regional Trust Fund in response to the Syrian crisis 

Tunisia: EU’s relations with Tunisiafactograph

Other organisations

Union for the Mediterranean

MENA-OECD Initiative on Governance and Competitiveness for Development supports reforms in the Middle East and North Africa

UN Peacekeeping Operations in the Middle East: United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF)United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) - United Nations Truce Supervision Organizations (UNTSO)

Eastern Partnership Civil Society Forum (EaP CSF), a regional civil society platform aimed at promoting European integration, facilitating reforms and democratic transformations in the six Eastern Partnership countries


AA.VV. (2018), The Middle East’s New Battle Lines, European Council on Foreign Relations

Achilli. L (2018) The “Good” Smuggler: The Ethics and Morals of Human Smuggling among Syrians, The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume: 676 issue: 1, page(s): 77-96.             

Achilli. L, Yassin. N, Erdogan. N.M (2017), Neighbouring Host-Countries’ Policies for Syrian Refugees: The Cases of Jordan, Lebanon, and Turkey, Papers, IEMed, Volume 19

 Achilli. L (2016), Back to Syria? : conflicting patterns of mobility among Syrian refugees in Jordan, Orient, 2016, Volume 57, No. 1, pp. 7-13

Adly. A (2018), When the dust settles : reflecting on the politics of reconstruction and reconciliation in the MENA region, Policy Briefs; Middle East Directions (MED)

 Adly. A (2016) Beyond the Arab State : towards an integrated approach to the political  economy of MENA, Policy Briefs; Middle East Directions (MED)

Akgün M. and  Tiryaki S. (eds.) (2017), Future of Syria, Euro-Mediterranean Study Commission

Alcaro R. (2018), Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Europe's Uncertain Role in Middle Eastern Geopolitics, Istituto Affari Internazionali

Bicchi. F (2002), Actors and Factors in European Foreign Policy Making: Insights from the Mediterranean Case, EUI Working Paper, RSC No2002/47

Bicchi. F (2016) Europe under occupation: the European diplomatic community of practice in the Jerusalem area European Security, 25 (4). 461-477. ISSN 0966-2839

Bicchi. F and Voltolini. B (2017), Europe, the Green Line and the issue of the Israeli-Palestinian border: closing the gap between discourse and practice?, Geopolitics, 23 (1). pp. 124-146

Capasso. M (2018) Sketches of the everydayMiddle East Critique. 27 (3). pp. 221-229

Dempsey J. (2016), Europe Still Looking Backward at Its Southern Neighbors, Strategic Europe, Carnegie Europe

Dessì A. (2017), Crisis and Breakdown: How Can the EU Foster Resilience in the Middle East and North Africa?, Istituto Affari Internazionali

Fahmi. G (2018), The debate over the use of violence within the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt after 2013, EUI RSCAS PP; 2018/01; Middle East Directions (MED)

Fahmi. G (2018), The future of Syrian Christians after the Arab Spring, Middle East Directions (MED); 2018/04

Fahmi. G (2017), What is the future of Christians in the Middle East?, Policy Briefs; 2017/07; Middle East Directions (MED)

Fahmi. G (2015), The Future of Political Salafism in Egypt and Tunisia, Carnegie Middle East Center

 Fahmi. G (2015), Market for Jihad: Radicalization in Tunisia (With Hamza Meddeb), Carnegie Middle East Center

Fahmi. G (2015), The Struggle for the Leadership of Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood, Carnegie Middle East Center

Gaub F. (2016), Civil-military relations in the MENA: between fragility and resilience, European Union Institute for Security Studies

Gaston E. and Derzsi-Horvath A. (2017), Iraq after ISIL: An Analysis of Local, Hybrid, and Sub-State Security Forces, Global Public Policy Institute

Ghanem-Yazbeck D. (ed.) (2018), The Sahel: Europe’s African Borders, Euro-Mediterranean Study Commission

Kader A. and Soler i Lecha E. (2018), Iraqi Kurdistan and Beyond: the EU’S Stakes, MENARA Future Notes n. 9.

Kamel L. (ed.) (2017), The Frailty of Authority. Borders, Non-State Actors and Power Vacuums in a Changing Middle East, Istituto Affari Internazionali

Meddeb. H (2016), Tunisia : a conservative revolution?, Policy Briefs; Middle East Directions (MED)

Meddeb. H (2018), “Fostering inclusiveness: A New Roadmap for EU-Tunisia Relations and the Engagement with Civil Society”, in Emmanuel Cohen-Hadria (ed.), The EU-Tunisia privileged partnership-What Next? IEMed/EuroMesco  

Meddeb. H (2017), Religion and Politics. Religious diversity, Political fragmentation and geopolitical tensions in the MENA Region, MENARA H2020

Meddeb. H (2017), Precarious Resilience. Tunisia’s Libyan predicament, MENARA Futures Notes, N°5

Meddeb. H (2017), Peripheral Vision. How Europe can help preserve Tunisia’s fragile democracy, ECFR Policy Memo

Meddeb. H (2016), “Smugglers, Tribes and Militias. The Rise of local forces in the Tunisian-Libyan border region, in Narbone. L, Favier. A and Collombier. V (ed.), Inside Wars. Local dynamics of conflicts in Syria and Libya, EUI, RSCAS, MEDirections Programme E-Book

Morillas P. (2015), From Policies to Politics: the EU as an International Mediator in the Mediterranean, EuroMeSCo Paper n. 23, Euro-Mediterranean Study Commission

Roy. O (2016), The limitations and dangers of Western government funding and promotion of Islam in the context of the new 'war of ideas', Policy Briefs; Middle East Directions (MED)

Soler i Lecha E. and Tocci N. (2016), Implications of the EU Global Strategy for the Middle East and North Africa, Future Notes n.1, MENARA project

Tubiana J. and Gramizzi C. (2017), Tubu Trouble: State and Statelessness in the Chad–Sudan–Libya Triangle, Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies


Basic figures on the European Neighbourhood Policy-South countries, Eurostat, 2018 edition

EU-funded projects on the Middle East and North Africa: ArabTrans, MENARA, MEDreset



EU institutions, agencies, and instruments

Overview of the EU’s migration policy at the European Commission’s Directorate General for Migration and Home Affairs (DG HOME) | all factsheets on migration

European Agenda on Migration, with factsheets and a repository of official legislative documents on migration

The Common European Asylum System (CEAS)

Factsheets on the EU’s response to the Syrian crisis and its support of resilience in Lebanon, Jordan, and Syria

European External Borders Agency (Frontex), tasked to coordinate the operational cooperation between EU member states on border security and, externally, liaise with third countries on fighting against illegal migration and cross-border crime.

EU operations in the Mediterranean sea (EUNAVFOR MED – Operation Sophia, fighting human trafficking in the Mediterranean – factsheet )

Middle East Peace Process, European External Action Service

(2017) Joint Statement by France, Germany, Italy and Spain: Addressing the Challenge of Migration and Asylum

Other organizations

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime

United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees (UNRWA)

International Organization for Migration | International Organization for Migration (2018), Libya’s Migrant Report. Round 17 January-February 2018. Flow Monitoring


Achilli. L and Sanchez. G (2017) Methodological approaches in human smuggling research: Documenting irregular migration facilitation in the Americas and the Middle East. Migration Policy Practice, (Vol. VII, Number 2). IOM: Berlin. P.21-25.

 Achilli. L and Sanchez. G (2017), What does disturbing the business model of migrant smugglers mean? Migration Policy Centre Policy Brief Series, European University Institute: Florence

Bergmann J., Lehmann J., Munsch T. and Powell W. (2018), Reinforcing Border Control: What’s at Stake for Migrants?, Global Public Policy Institute

Breines, M. et al. (2015) A Study on Smuggling of Migrants: Characteristics, Responses and Cooperation with Third Countries. Case Study 2: Ethiopia - Libya - Malta/Italy, European Commission, DG Migration & Home Affairs

Bugriy M. (2017), Russian Citizenship for Ukrainians: Addressing Russia’s Population Decline, Eurasia Daily Monitor, vol. 14 (94), James Town Foundation

Carrera, S. et al. (2018), Oversight and Management of the EU Trust Funds: Democratic Accountability Challenges and Promising Practices, European Parliament

Collett E. and Le Coz C. (2018), After the Storm: Learning from the EU Response to the Migration Crisis, Migration Policy Institute

Garcés Mascareñas, Blanca (2018), A Disputed Sea: From Rescue to the Fight Against Traffickers, Notes Internacionals 199, CIDOB

Godzimirski J.M., Puka L., Stormowska M. (2015), Has the EU Learnt from the Ukraine Crisis? Changes to Security, Energy and Migration Governance, Polish Institute for International Affairs

Knoll, A. and de Weijer, F. (2016), Understanding African and European perspectives on migration: Towards a better partnership for regional migration governance?, European Centre for Development Policy Management

Lehmann J. (2017), What’s After the “Crisis”? Scenarios for EU Refugee Policy Post-2016, Global Public Policy Institute

Lehne S. (2018), The EU Remains Unprepared for the Next Migration Crisis, Carnegie Europe

Lehne S. (2016), Upgrading the EU’s Migration Partnerships, Carnegie Europe

Lehne S. (2016), The Tempting Trap of Fortress Europe, Carnegie Europe

Ledel M. (2016), Migration of Ukrainians to Central European Countries in the Context of the Postmaidan Internal and International Crisis, Public Policy and Administration, vol. 15 (4)

Parkes R. (2017), Nobody move! Myths of the EU migration crisis, European Union Institute for Security Studies

Pearce E. and Lee B. (2018), From vulnerability to resilience: improving humanitarian response, Force Migration Review

Sanchez. G (2018) Five Misconceptions about Migrant Smuggling, Migration Policy Centre Policy Brief Series, European University Institute: Florence

Sanchez. G, Hoxhaj. R, Nardin. S, Geddes. A, Achilli. L, Kalantaran. S (2018), A study of the communication channels used by migrants and asylum seekers in Italy, with a particular focus on online and social media. DG-Home, European Union

Vimont P. (2016), Migration in Europe: Bridging the Solidarity Gap, Carnegie Europe

Yahya M., Kassir J., and El-Hariri K. (2018), Unheard Voices: What Syrian Refugees Need to Return Home, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace


Global Study on Smuggling of Migrants (2018) of United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, which includes a section on patterns and trends of migrant smuggling to and across Europe

Global Trends – Force Displacement in 2017, United Nations



EU institutions, agencies, and instruments

EU security and defence overview, a timeline for European cooperation in the area of security and defence)

Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) with its structure: the  Political and Security Committee (PSC), the European Union Military Committee (EUMC), the Committee for Civilian Aspects of Crisis Management (CIVCOM), the Politico-Military Group (PMG), The Crisis Management and Planning Directorate (CMPD), the European Union Military Staff (EUMS), the Civilian Planning and Conduct Capability (CPCC)

Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), European External Action Service

EU Mission and operations (factsheet)

Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) – Joint notification of 23 EU member states

Instrument contributing to Stability and Peace (IcSP) - the European Defence Fund

EU agency for law enforcement cooperation (Europol), tasked with protecting Europe from international crime and terrorism

European Defence Agency

EDA’s defence Data Portal collects defence data compiled by the agency since 2016. Data for the 2013-2015 are collected in the a booklet and the agency provides also National Breakdown of Defence Data (2016)

European Security and Defence College (ESDC)

European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS)

Other organisations

North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) – EU-NATO cooperation

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO)


Brenner T., Brockmeier S., Burai E., Murthy C.S.R., Daase C., Mohan J.M., Junk J., Kurowska X., Kurtz G., Tiewa L., Reinicke W., Rotmann P., Soares de Oliveira R., Spektor M., Stuenkel O., Tourinho M., Verhoeven H. and Haibin Z. (2015), Effective and Responsible Protection from Atrocity Crimes: Toward Global Action, research project on Global Norm Evolution and The Responsibility to Protect, Global Public Policy Institute

Binder A. and Rotmann P. (2014), Evaluating Foreign Policy Measures in Fragile Contexts: Lessons Learned and Recommendations, Global Public Policy Institute

Biscop S. (2018), The EU and multilateralism in an age of Great Powers, Egmont Institute

Brockmeier S. and Rotmann P. (2016), Civil Affairs and Local Conflict Management in Peace Operations, Global Public Policy Institute

Cadier D. (2011), EU Mission in Kosovo (EULEX): Constructing Ambiguity or Constructive Disunity?, SAIS Johns Hopkins Centre For Transatlantic Relations/ Fondation pour la Recherche Stratégique

Eckard S. (2016), The Challenges and Lessons Learned in Supporting Security Sector Reform, Friedrich Ebert Stiftung and Global Public Policy Institute, 13 July 2016

Fiott D., Missiroli A. and Tardy T. (2017), Permanent Structured Cooperation: what’s in a name?, European Institute for Security Studies

 Kurtz G. and Rotmann P. (2016), Protecting Civilians Through UN Peace Operations, Global Public Policy Institute

Lazarou E. (2018), Peace and Security in 2018: Overview of EU action and outlook for the future, European Parliamentary Research Service

Lesser I., Brandsma C., Basagni L., Lété B. (2018), The Future of NATO’s Mediterranean Dialogue, German Marshall Fund

Lewis P., Parakilas J., Schneider-Petsinger M., Smart C., Rathke J., Ruy D. (2018) The Future of the United States and Europe: An Irreplaceable Partnership, Chatham House

Rotmann P. (2016), Toward a Realistic and Responsible Idea of Stabilisation, Stability: International Journal of Security & Development

Rotmann P. and Steinacker L. (2013), Stabilization: Doctrine, Organization and Practice, Global Public Policy Institute

Rotmann P. (2018), Security Assistance and Reform: Bringing the Politics Back In, PeaceLab Blog, Global Policy Institute

Santopinto F. (2018), CSDP after Brexit: the way forward, European Parliament's Sub-Committee on Security and Defence

Tocci N. (2017), The Time for European Defence Has Come: Rome Must Step Up to the Task, Istituto Affari Internazionali


Global Conflict Tracker, an interactive tool by the Council of Foreign Relations mapping conflicts worldwide

PeaceLab, a blog by the Global Public Policy Institute on the debates related to security cultures inside the EU

Valášek T. (2018), European Defense vs. NATO: Not the Right Fight, Politico Europe




AA.VV. (2014), The Geopolitics of Eurasian Economic Integration, LSE IDEAS Special Report 19

AA.VV. (2018), State of Fragility Report, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)

Adebahr C. (2018), EU Policy Options in Case of U.S. Withdrawal From the Iran Nuclear Deal, testimony for the European Parliament Committee on Foreign Affairs, April 2018

Benner T., Gaspers J., Ohlberg M., Poggetti L. and Shi-Kupfer K. (2018), Authoritarian Advance: Responding to China’s Growing Political Influence in Europe, GPPi & MERICS

Bugajski J., Doran P.B. (2016), Black Sea Defended, Center for European Policy Analysis

Dempsey J. (2017), NATO’s Eastern Flank and Its Future Relationship with Russia, Carnegie Europe

de Pedro N. and Ghiles F. (2017),  War in Peacetime. Russia’s Strategy on NATO’s Eastern and Southern Flanks, CIDOB

Geranmayeh E. (2018), After Trump’s Iran decision: Time for Europe to step up, European Council on Foreign Relations, May 2018

Hackett J. (2018), The conventional military balance on the Korean Peninsula, International Institute for Strategic Studies

Horowitz M., Kania E.B., Allen G.C., Scharre P. (2018), Strategic Competition in an Era of Artificial Intelligence, Center for a New American Security

Lanna N. (2018), Europe, Japan and a Rising China: Policies and Prospects, Istituto Affari Internazionali

Lee B., Preston F., Kooroshy J., Bailey R. and Lahnet G. (2012), Resources Futures, Chatham House

Liik K. (2017), What does Russia Want?, European Council on Foreign Relations

Mohan G. (2018), Europe’s Response to the Belt and Road Initiative, German Marshall Fund of the United States

Potemkina O. (ed.) (2017), The EU Global Strategy: Implications for Russia, Institute of Europe (Russian Academy of Sciences) and Egmont Institute

Ratner E. (2018), Geostrategic and Military Drivers and Implications of the Belt and Road Initiative, testimony before the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission

Siddi M. (ed.) (2018), EU member states and Russia: National and European debates in an evolving international environment, Report 53, Finnish Institute of International Affairs (FIIA),

Wimbush S.E. and Portale E.M. (eds.) (2017), Russia in Decline, Jamestown Foundation


Timeline of North Korean Nuclear Negotiations (2018), Council on Foreign Relations

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CIA World Fact-book

Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union

International Monetary Fund (IMF) Country information

ECFR - European Foreign Policy Scorecard 2016, on the foreign policy performance of the 28 member states and the EU institutions.

Uppsala Conflict Database, datasets on organised violence and peacemaking

Vision of Humanity - Global Peace Index, published annually on trends in peace, its economic value, and developing peaceful societies.

Economist Intelligence Unit – Democracy Index, published annually, assesses the status of democracy around the world

PRIO GRID 2.0, information on armed conflicts, socio-economic conditions, ethnic groups, physical attributes, climatic conditions and more in all terrestrial areas of the world

GlobalStat, statistical data on economic, environmental, political, social, societal and cultural performance of nations

Global Risks Report 2018, World Economic Forum

UNESCO Institute for Statistics, data related to sustainable development goals

Nation in Transit 2018, a research project by Freedom House on democracy in the 29 formerly communist countries from Central Europe to Central Asia

World Economic Outlook (2018), a dataset compiled by the International Monetary Fund

World Press Freedom Index (2018), an index produced by Reporters Without Borders that ranks 180 countries according to the level of freedom available to journalists., U.S. Government’s open data

Bertelsmann Transformation Index (BTI), an index on the quality of democracy, market economy and political management in 129 developing, and transition countries